Annual Report of the Association of African Universities - (1997)
The 96-97 Report covers the period from June ’96 to July ’97. The year started
with preparations for the 9TH AAU General Conference which was held in Lusaka from 13 to 17 January 1997. The Conference adopted the AAU Core Programme for the next four years: 1997 to the year 2000. This report is published at a time when the AAU is undertaking a major initiative in information systems on higher education in Africa. Its entire computer system is being updated and more space created in the Information and Communication Department to strengthen its capacity to develop relevant data on higher education institutions in Africa. The report is also being published at a time when the AAU is developing fruitful cooperation with other organizations in and outside of the region.
In addition to putting finishing touches to the Core Programme, the activities under the period of consideration concern mainly the following aspects:-
- Start of cooperation with the Medias Afrique Project;
- Participation in the African regional consultation in the preparation of the World Conference on Higher Education,
- Participation of the Association in the World Bank Action Group on the Relaunching of Higher Education in Africa;
- Finalising certain projects of the 1993-1996 Core Programme.
- Preparation of projects of the 1997-2000 Core Programme.
Equally noteworthy are some changes in the staff of the Secretariat with the departure of the Assistant Secretary General in August 1996 and the appointment of a Programme Officer in August 1997. With the support staff, two left while a Computer Assistant was appointed in January 1997. In the near future another Programme Officer and an Assistant Librarian/Archivist will also be appointed. Like in the previous report,this will also provide information on the AAU’s finances and statistics on the evolution and management of the Association.
We hope this report will enable you to evaluate progress made by the Association of African Universities during the 1996-1997 period.
We-2ake this opportunity to thank all those who have helped us all these past years and will continue to do so in the same spirit with the activities of the 1997-2000 Core Programme.
THE SECRETARY GENERAL
The 9th AAU General Conference was from 13 to 17 January 1997 in Lusaka,
Zambia with the theme: “The African University in a Rapidly Changing Global Environment: Facing the Challenges of the 21st Century”. The Conference also served as the theme of the AAU Core Programme and has the following sub-themes:-
· The Role of the University in the Education Sector;
· Responses of universities to SocialInstability and Crisis;
· Quality of Training and Research.
The General Conference was held in collaboration with the University of Zambia and it brought together 173 participants with 57 from AAU Member - Universities; 5 from Non-member Universities and 43 regional and international organizations.
Figure 1: Distribution of participants at the 9th General Conference
The Conference of Rectors, Vice Chancellors and Presidents of African Universities (COREVIP) preceded the General Conference on Monday 13 January 1997. It had as its theme: “Promoting Quality Enhancement and Quality Assessment.: The Role of Regional Co-operation.”
The main aim of the COREVIP was to sensitize Administrators of African Universities on the relevance of qualitaty education and research. The theme was chosen as a result of the deterioration of quality in the African Universities. Among the main causes for this deterioration can be cited, the decrease of budgetary allocations to the universities, and the sudden increase in the number of students.
Dr. A Vroeijenstijn of the Association of Dutch Universities presented the working paper.
In his presentation, Dr. A Vroeijenstijn first reviewed the strategies African Universities have adopted to improve the quality of education and research; among others, the regionalization of some training; Staff exchanges, training, etc. He then went on to discuss the means that could be used to measure quality such as staff evaluation, evaluation by the students, etc. The last part of the paper dealt with the various roles the AAU could play to promote quality in its member-universities namely, sensitization and the development of measuring means. Discussants for this theme were Dr. Marjorie P. Lenn of the Centre for Quality Assurance in International Education and Dr. Johan A. Brink of the Committee of Uniiversity Principals (South Africa).
The recommendations of the presentation are as follows:
The AAU should:-
- take an inventory of quality promotion activities in the universities and set-up a data-base on these activities and their methods;
- prepare a guide-line on Quality Assurance Methods and assist the member universities in their application.
- promote regional cooperation through mobility of teaching staff and students and research.
The General Conference got underway on Tuesday 14 January 1997 under the Chairmanship of Prof. George Benneh, out-going President of the AAU, and the opening address was delivered by the President of Zambia, His Excellency Mr. Frederick J.T. Chiluba. After the speeches, officers of the Conference Bureau were elected; two (2) Committees for the elections and the examination of the Constitution and Bye-Laws as well as three (3) Working Groups were set-up one of which was bi-lingual.
The main conference paper was presented by Prof. Walter J. Kamba, former Rector of the University of Zimbabwe and Dean of the Law Faculty of the University of Namibia. Prof. Kamba dwelt at length on the problems African universities are facing today and their subsequent effect on the development of the African continent:
Leadership and Management: The paper was presented by Prof. Essane Seraphin of the Universite de Cocody (Cote d’Ivoire). The discussant was Dr. Dorothy L. Njeuma, Rector of the Université de Buea (Cameroon). The following recommendations were made in Prof. Seraphin’s paper:
- The universities should improve their communication and information systems by using the latest information technologies in order to improve their performances;
- The universities should adopt strategic planning for better management practices and encourage the involvement of all stake-holders;
- The universities should promote more the notion of gender balance;
The Responses of universities to Social Instability and Crisis:- This was presented by Dr. Edward Kwakwa of the World Trade Organization with Prof. Ahmadou L Ndiaye, Rector of the Universite Gaston Berger de Saint-Louis (Senegal), as Discussant.
The main recommendations that emerged from Dr. Kwakwa’s presentation were:-
- The encouragement in the universities of the development of a curriculum which will promote understanding among the people;
- More academic freedom
- The promotion of courses by the AAU in the humanities, taking current experiences into consideration;
- AAU should reactivate its gender balance research unit.
The Role of the university in the Education Sector: Prof. Lameck K.H. Goma, consultant and former Rector of the University of Zambia presented the theme and was discussed by Dr. Richard Fehnel of the Ford Foundation. The main recommendations are:-
- The universities should be involved in the training of teachers/Lecturers;
- The universities should sensitize governments on the importance of education;
- Research should be accorded more attention.
Parallel activities were also organised along with the General Conference. These included:
- Implementation of Management Information System: Lessons and Pitfalls with the Association of Commonwealth Universities;
- Visit to the University of Zambia;
- Exhibition of documents by the AAU and member universities.
Besides the recommendations, the General Conference also adopted the Core Programme, endorsed the amendments to both the Constitution andBye-Laws and elected Prof. Andrew A. Siwela Vice Chancellor of the University of Zambia, as the new President of the AAU for the next four (4) years.
Between July ’96 and June ’97 the Association’s Executive Board met on two
occasions. The first took place in Zambia, from 11 to 12 January just before
the General Conference, 1997 and the second at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi Ghana, 29 to 30 May 1997. In each of these Meetings, the AAU. Secretary General presented for the respective periods, reports on the Association of African Universities activities and finances. The AAU Executive Board is made up of 15 Members elected for a four (4) year period. Its main function is to oversee the activities of the AAU Secretariat and meets once a year.
4.1 Study programme on higher education
The broad objective of this programme is to stimulate and promote research into management policies for African universities and to contribute to the strengthening of analysis and evaluation capacities. Conceived for a four (4) year period in the first instance, it is expected to produce a core of researchers, promote better understanding of problems of higher education in Africa, and contribute to improvements in higher education policy-making in Africa. It should also promote research in quality education thereby increasing the involvement of African researchers in discussions on higher education in the world.
During the period 96-97, the following Programme activities were carried out:-
· The drafting of a report on research results of the first batch of researchers. This report is the summary of the results obtained;
· The organization of a Methodological Workshop in Accra from 17-18 March for the second batch of twenty-four (24) researchers. The objective was to harmonize the collection means and the research methodology;
· The organization of a management development workshop on Universities Management from 20 to 21 March in Accra. thirty-five (35) persons attended this workshop of which two were Ministers, Nine (9) Rectors and researchers.
4.2 Training Workshop for University Administrators (SUMA).
This Workshop, Well known under its English acronym, SUMA, aims at strengthening leadership and management capacities of African Universities administrators. Four (4) workshops have been held so far. The fifth is slated for 29 September to 6 October 1997 at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. This will be preceded by an orientation and case writing workshop at the University of the North, also in South Africa. The SUMA will be integrated in the sub-theme, Leadership and Management.
4.3 Chairs for Women in Science and Technology.
The aim of this project is to promote women participation in science and technology. To this end the project should organise activities which will encourage young girls
to choose careers in science at the same time developing cooperation among women researchers.
Two chairs were created:- one at the University of Swaziland for the Southern Africa region and the other at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana for West Africa. In Swaziland the following activities were undertaken:-
· the launching of a video programme for women scientists in Southern Africa;
· The publication of the first edition of the Newsletter of the network;
· the sensitization of young girls in the rural areas to embrace careers in science;
· the search for funding
In Ghana the activities were:-
· The holding of a sensitization workshop for Female Teachers/Lecturers on the need to counsel young girls to choose careers in Science on 2 June 1997 at the university of 40 female teachers/lecturers attended the workshop organised in collaboration with the Association of Science Teachers of Ghana.
4.4 Linkages between the Universities and the Productive Sector.
The aim of this project is to promote linkages between African Universities and small and medium scale enterprises with a view to enhancing their growth and contribution to national development; make university research and curriculum of university courses more relevant to the needs of the study and enhance the utilization of university research results.
Building on earlier works of the AAU, national case studies of five selected universities were commissioned in four African countries. These were the National University of Lesotho, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ille - Ife (Nigeria), Copperbelt University of Zambia and the University of Zimbabwe. A synthesis report which will share the results with member universities will be prepared.
4.5 Study on the Use of African Languages in Education
The objective of this project is to examine the use of African Languages in education and research in Universities in Africa.
A survey on this was carried out in 22 universities. Visits to institutions in West and Southern Africa were also made in this connection. A publication on the role of the university in the promotion of the use of African Languages is envisaged and will contain recommendations for the AAU Secretariat and the member-universities.
4.6 Inventory of Training and Capacity Programmes of African Universities.
This project is trying to set-up an information system on higher education by collecting and disseminating information on Structures, infrastructures, courses and degrees offered by the universities in Africa. The project which was at the pilot phase covered only 15 universities. The obtained data was integrated in the CD-ROM <<World academic data-base>>.
During the 96-97 period, activities centered on the distribution of International Association of Universities IAU published CD-ROM to all the member-universities inviting them to take part in the next phase of the project contained in the Core Programme 1997-2000. It is intended to extend the project to 60 universities.
4.7 Electronic Mail For Information Exchanges
This projects aim is the strengthening of cooperation between the universities through information exchanges and the connection of higher education institutions to the World-Wide INTERNET network.
The AAU electronic network has undergone considerable change during the last two years. As at now 33 Institutions are connected to it including 11 Non-Governmental Organizations and 6 companies. Since the end of 1996, AAU has updated its computer network to give its staff full access to information sources available in today’s world. Indeed the Information and Communication Department is at present developing the Association’s WEB-site which should be available by the end of this year, 1997.
4.8 Promotion of Scientific Publishing
The aim of this project was to promote scientific publishing in the universities in order to encourage the dissemination of research results. A study conducted by a consultant shows a poor state of scientific publishing in the region. The report advised the AAU to set up a network on scientific publishing, to encourage the drafting of Bye-Laws for the University Presses and to organise training seminars on the scientific publishing. The Association intends to disseminate this report to its members as soon as it is finalised.
4.9 Collection and Dissemination of Research Results in Science andTechnology.
This project aims at setting-up an information system on research results in Science and Technology. To facilitate the implementation of this system various methodological tools were developed; such as a Data Input Sheet and an Operational Manual. Eight universities were selected to participate in this first phase: University of Cape Coast (Ghana), University of Botswana, University of Swaziland, University of Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia), University of Zambia, University of Pretoria (South Africa), University of the North (South Africa) and the University of Nairobi (Kenya).
During the period 96-97, the following activities were organised:-
- the provision of equipment and software to member universities to enable them develop local data-bases on research results in science and technology;
4.10 Directory of Training Opportunities in ACP countries
This project aims at producing an index on the training opportunities in ACP countries for second cycle students so as to facilitate students movement in those countries. The project is being implemented by the Institute of Research and Counseling in Social Sciences of Netherlands with the AAU playing the role of a regional partner. The AAU has sensitised member universities on the need to participate in the project and (also identified resource persons to fill out) has distributed questionnaire to be completed. The Launching of the project’s first directory is scheduled for September 1997.
Announcement of the Exchange Programme and scholarships has been sent to the universities. Selection of candidates will be done before the end of the year 1997.
Donor organisations have been requested to increase their funding level in order to increase the number of scholarships and teaching staff exchanges which helps to strengthen regional cooperation among African universities.
Besides those contained in its Work scheduled, the secretariat undertook other
activities to improve higher education:
This activity was in collaboration with the World Bank and is a follow-up to a report submitted to the President of the World Bank by African Finance Ministers which called on the Bank to mobilize the other Donors to strengthen the capacities of African universities. It was in this light that an Action Group was set up to initiate a policy on the strengthening of capacities. The first paper on this issue was sent to 25 institutions for their comments. Out of this number, 18 reacted. A second paper was written based on the comments received and dispatched to 15 Donors. This paper, written in close collaboration with the AAU was supported by some African regional organizations such as CAMES and CODESRIA, and National Committees of African and Nigerian universities.
From 17-18 July 1997 a follow-up workshop was held in Accra to discuss the paper. It was made up of 15 participants from various institutions. The final paper has been prepared which will serve as a practical guide for Rectors, Decision-Makers in Government and Donors on reforms in African universities. The paper was sent to African Ministers of Finance and will be officially presented to the Annual Meeting of the World Bank in September 1997 in Hong Kong.
5.2 OAU Council of Ministers of Education.
During the joint colloquium on the university in Africa/Association for the Development of African Education Working Group on Higher Education, the Secretarial was called upon to contact the Organization of African Unity with a view to involving African decision-makers in its deliberations and recommendations. A resolution was therefore adopted on 24th June 1995 to organise a Conference of African Ministers of Education to examine the problems of education on the continent. South Africa volunteered to host this Conference and a planning committee made up of the AAU, OAU, UNESCO and the Ministry of Education of South Africa was formed. The planning committee has already met on two occasions. It has been decided that the Council of Ministers shall take place from 20 to 24 April 1998 in Durban, South Africa.
5.3 Media Africa Project
AAU and Blackside Inc., USA have agreed to collaborate to set up a pilot education project. This will involve the production of a series of documentaries on the “Hopes on the Horizon: the Rebirth of a New Africa 1945-1995”. These documentaries will portray the changes over the last fifty (50) years. The cooperation agreement was initialled in May 1997. A Consultative Council has equally been established and held its first Meeting from 5-6 July 1997 in Accra . It is made up of research fellows in the social sciences and film producers from all the African sub-regions.
UNESCO is organising a World Conference on Higher Education in October 1998 in Paris. Preparation towards this event envisages the involvement of all institutions with interest in higher education. To facilitate this involvement, consultation meetings are being organised in all the regions of the World. African Regional Consultation took place from 1-4 April 1997 in Dakar. The AAU was represented by its President, the Secretary General, the Director of Research and the Head of Administration and Finance. The president spoke on the AAU’s efforts in the development of higher education in Africa. The Secretary General presented a paper on : “The Role of the University in the Development of the Entire education system.” The Director of Research’s paper was on “Strengthening Inter-African Cooperation in Higher Education,” and that of the Head of Administration and Finance on “Linkages between the Universities and the Productive Sector - the experiences of African universities.”
The AAU Core Programme 1997-2000 was adopted by the General Conference
held from 13-17 January 1997 in Lusaka. It was prepared under the theme:- “The African University in a Rapidly Changing Global Environment: Facing the Challenges of the 21st Century.” The sub-themes are:- “Leadership and Management, The Role of the University in the Education Sector, Enhancement of Quality Training and Research and Gender Balance. Since its adoption the Secretariat has worked out projects which have been submitted to various Funding Agencies. As at now 50% of the Core Programme’s funding has been obtained and negotiations are still underway to obtain the rest.
The following project proposals have been proposed under the various sub-themes:-
Leadership and Management
* Training Workshop for Administrators of African universities.
The Role of the University in the Education Sector
Enhancement of Quality Training and Research
* Regional Cooperation in 3rd Cycle Training Programmes;
* Sensitization Conference on Quality Enhancement.
* 3rd cycle Training Programme on Humanitarian Problems and Refugees;
* Programme for the strengthening of AAU’s Internal capacities in gender.
* 3rd Cycle scholarships;
* Grants for Theses.
Since 1995 the AAU has established a System for Follow-up and Evaluation of its
projects. This is mainly the periodic revision of the implementation of planned activities contained in the Work schedule. A report is then sent to our consultants. After the consultants have examined it an annual meeting within the AAU secretariat then goes on to consider the consultants comments. The Consultants are also expected to visit some universities before the annual meeting. During 1996-97 two (2) meetings were held to review the activities. The Follow-up and Evaluation report was submitted to and approved by the 52nd Meeting of the Executive Board.
The main aim of the follow-up and evaluation system is the effectiveness and efficiency of AAU’s programmes and projects for them to meet the needs of member universities. To ensure that the presentation of the activities follow the same pattern, a guide-line has been provided. In addition to a report of activities each Director of the Secretariat should submit a work schedule with the activities, the budget and the anticipated results at the end of the project Since the establishment of this system there has been a better follow-up of projects and programmes. As a result of the performances, the Executive Board, during its 47th session in Mansoura, Egypt decided that every project and programme should contribute 1% of its total budget to the follow-up and evaluation system.
In the same vein the Secretariat organised a retreat for its professional staff and their assistants to reflect on the mission and activities of the Association. This was an occasion to review on-going strategies and the constraints linked to the execution of projects. The following topics were discussed during the retreat.
- Administrative and Financial Management of the Secretariat;
- Development of an Information System on Higher Education.
During the year 1996-97, publishing activities were quite intensive in the
Secretariat. In all 10 documents were published in addition to 3 editions of the Newsletter. These documents are:-
- Revitalizing Universities in Africa: Strategy and Guidelines (in collaboration with the World Bank) 1997.
- Leadership and Management. Essane Seraphin 1997.
- The role of the University in the Education Sector. Lameck K. Goma. 1997.
- Responses of African Universities to Social Instability and Crises. Edward Kwakwa. 1997.
- Promoting Quality Enhancement and Quality Assessment: the role of regional cooperation. A. Vroeijenstijn 1997.
- AAU Core Programme 1997-2000. 1997
- Implementation report of Core-programme 1993-1996. 1997
- Internal Monitoring and Evaluation of AAU programmes: programme reports and work plans 1996-1997. 1996
- Internal Monitoring and Evaluation of AAU programmes: programme reports and work plans 1997-1998. 1997
This increase in activity was due to the preparation of the 9th General Conference during which 6 of 10 papers were presented.
President: Prof. Andrew Siwela, University of Zambia
Prof. Hauhouot Asseypo, Universite de Cocody, Cote d’Ivoire
Prof. Ali A.M. Babiker, Islamic University of Omdurman, Sudan
Prof. Doroty L. Njeuma, University of Buea Cameroon
Prof. Hassan Mektar, Universite de Mohammed I, Morocco
Prof. Abdel Hamid Shalaby, University of the Suez Canal, Egypt
Prof. Peter Katjavivi, University of Namibia
Prof. John Melamu, University of North West, South Africa
Prof. Brown B. Chimphamba, University of Malawi
Prof. Deo Kambanda, Universite Nationale du Rwanda
Prof. M.L. Luhanga, University of Tanzania
Prof. George Eshiwani, Kenyatta University, Kenya
Prof. Lamine N’Diaye, Universite de Saint-Louis, Senegal
Prof. Wale Omole, University of Ife, Nigeria
Prof. Eugene Amonoo-Neizer, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Prof. Moletsane, National University of Lesotho
Prof. M.Wiechers, University of South Africa
Prof. P.M. Makhurane, National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe
Prof. G.Midende, University of Burundi
Prof. Ratemo Michieka, Jomo Kenyatta University of Science and Technology, Kenya
Dr. Wole Ab Yisak, University of Asmara, Erithrea
Prof. Mogessie Ashenafi, University of Addis Ababa Ethiopia
Prof. Osseni Tidjani, Universite du Benin, Togo
Prof. Nenfort Gomwalk, University of Jos, Nigeria
Prof. Daniel Chaytor, University of Sierra Leone.
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P.O.BOX 20, WAD MEDANI
UNIVERSITY OF JUBA
P.O. BOX 321/1
OMDURMAN ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
P.O. BOX 382 OMDURMAN
UNIVERSITY OF KHARTOUM
P.O. BOX 321
AHFAD UNIVERSITY FOR WOMEN
P.O. BOX 167, OMDURMAN
OMDURMAN AHLIA UNIVERSITY,
P.O.BOX 786, OMDURMAN
WADI AL-NEEL UNIVERSITY
P.O. BOX10216, KHARTOUM
INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF AFRICA
SUDAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND
P.O. BOX 407
UNIVERSITY OF HOLY QURAN AND ISLAMIC SCIENCES,
P.O. BOX 1459, OMDURMAN
UNIVERSITY OF KORDOFAN
P.O, BOX 517, EL OBEID
UPPER NILE UNIVERSITY
P.O. BOX 1660, KHARTOUM
UNIVERSITY OF SWAZILAND
PRIVATE BAG 4 KWALUSEN
UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM
P.O. BOX 35091 DAR ES SALAAM
SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
P.O. BOX 3000 MOROGORO
THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
P.O. BOX 9213
DAR ES SALAAM
UNIVERSITE DU TCHAD
UNIVERSITE DU BENIN
BP 1515 LOME
29, RUE ASBRUBAL, 1002 TUNIS
MBARARA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
P.O. BOX 1410 MBARARA
UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA
P.O. BOX 21692
UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE
P. O. BOX M.P. 167 MOUNT PLEASANT
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
P.O. BOX 346